PTA/RTA Week 2

  • Ideally follows week 1 and with at least six months PTA analysis experience.
  • Self-assessment pre-course test on the KAPPA website.

Course programme: Week 2

Week 2 course builds on the knowledge and experience gained from the Week 1 course by expanding the user knowledge of the additional functionalities of the PTA module Saphir and includes an introduction to RTA methodology and the RTA module Topaze. Many examples are worked ‘hands on’ to illustrate the practical aspects of more complex cases using analytical and numerical methods. In keeping with the effort to keep things as simple as possible, but no simpler, problems are analysed at their simplest level whilst layers of complexity are added as demanded by the case.

Pre-requisites to attend the course

To attend the PTA/RTA Week 2 course it is essential you have attended the PTA/RTA Week 1 or its equivalent and it is strongly recommended that this is coupled with six months of ‘real world’ PTA and/or RTA experience. Without this experience it is unlikely the attendee keep pace and fully benefit from this course. It is important to have a good working knowledge of Saphir prior to this course.

To check readiness for the PTA/RTA Week 2 course please try this self-assessment test. Experienced PTA/RTA engineers not familiar with Saphir and/or Topaze can arrange a free demonstration copy of the software to assist prior to the course. Please contact for assistance.

Software usage

It is essential that attendees have attained a good working knowledge of Saphir and/or Topaze prior to registering for this course.


Using a real field case, a very brief review of user knowledge and a revision of key principles to prepare for a more in depth look at transient and production analysis tools. This revision session includes a very brief theory of diffusion, IARF and pseudo-steady state. The concept of the Bourdet derivative including derivation, properties and limitations. Test design and objectives, superposition in time and in space, sensitivity to input parameters and radius of investigation. Transient analysis and where it sits in relation to other reservoir engineering methods. Constant wellbore storage and why it never is, skin components, standard interpretation models including finite radius and fractured wells, dual porosity reservoirs and boundary effects. This will also include a revision of the use of Saphir, with help on shortcuts and the latest functionality.


examples and considerations, ramp rate superposition; principle and advantages. Time dependency; a changing skin condensate RTA example. IPR and AOF, correcting pressure to sandface.

Complex boundary models

Complex boundary conditions and unconventional limits including constant pressure boundaries, leaky, conductive and non-continuous faults handled with a common sense approach. Finite reservoirs and material balance and the effect of compressibility on reserve estimations. A discussion of the validity of radius of investigation.

RTA methodology

From conventional empirical methods including Arps and Fetkovich to the current Blasingame, material balance and loglog diagnostic plots and current Decline Curve Analysis (DCA). Comparing the information gained from high resolution, high frequency data (PTA) and low resolution low frequency data (RTA). Transient versus boundary dominated diffusion.

Topaze practical

Topaze workflow from load, edit, QAQC, model, p(q), q(p), fast model and field examples.

Minifrac/DFIT analysis

Developing a consistent workflow combining the G-function plot with derivatives to define the leak-off behavior and the closure pressure. Including after closure analysis (ACA).

Horizontal Multifrac wells

Constraining the model geometry and subsequent PTA, RTA, RTM, DCA considerations particularly in Unconventional Resources.

Analytical and/or numerical?

Development of the workflow from the simple analytical case through to the numerical case with increasing complexity. From 2D to 3D and multiphase using increasing geological and petrophysical data.

Complex PVT

The multiphase problem. Aquifers and the choice and tuning of the model. Non-Darcy flow. Heavy oil analysis, gas condensate, using the non-linear numerical model.


All courses are conducted in English unless otherwise notified.
Date Location Instructor Cost

To be announced


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