Unconventional Resources Analysis and Processing

  • A course to develop user knowledge and capability in the handling and analysis of multi-well UR resources.
  • Strong emphasis on rigorous physics in modeling methodology
  • A course to stress the limitations of methods used, industry knowledge and the risks inherent in the analysis assumptions.
  • No pre-requisite software knowledge is required however, knowledge and experience in transient and/or rate transient analysis would be an advantage.

At KAPPA we freely admit that we, and the industry as a whole, are on a learning curve with Unconventional Resources. Conventional methods, it is now acknowledged, are a dramatic over simplification of the physical reality and may lead to erroneous results. With much content derived from the 28-member KAPPA Unconventional Resources Consortium, this course delivers technical knowledge as it is available today. But we should offer a health warning; it is dynamic. As we develop experience, knowledge and new tools, so the content of this course will evolve. What we teach here might be outdated within months.

In the noise of prejudice, convention and difficult physics we state and teach clearly what we believe to be technically correct. Much of the course is therefore about stating the confidence, counter-arguments and limits in assumptions as the technology evolves.

Some issues are related to the physics in these formations and the sheer complexity of the problem: the extremely low permeability of these plays lead to very long transient behaviors, a lack of long-term empirical knowledge of how these plays will evolve, and extreme pressure gradients inducing nonlinearity of even the simplest behaviors. We may need exotic diffusion equations at different scales, confined PVT due to the small pore space, potentially complex and unknown or assumed combinations of hydraulic and natural fractures.

To these challenging unknowns we need to add the practical issues related to the way we operate these plays: insufficient human resource to handle thousands of wells, a temptation to process and not understand, very poor data quality and little industry awareness of how wrong we could be.

Pre-requisites to attend the course

Prior knowledge of the software is not required but if you have never used it before we would be happy to give you a full working demo version with examples and workflow videos prior to attending.

Course programme

Introduction and Definitions

Specifics of shale plays

The impact of ultra-low permeability, transient behavior, and the lack of empirical knowledge and modeling issues. Multiple scales of diffusion: desorption, micropore (Fick’s law), fracture (Darcy and Forscheimer). Fracture density and effectiveness, PVT issues and typical well life.

UR data sources

Decline Curve Analysis (DCA) - Citrine, Topaze NL

Conventional techniques and their limitations; Arps, Fetkovitch, flowing material balance and others. Flow regime analysis techniques: linear flow, SRV and transition. Techniques adapted to unconventionals; stretched exponential, Duong, etc.

Load, QAQC and Diagnostics - Citrine

Multi-well data load from various standard sources. QA/QC and wells pre-selection, grouping and normalization. Flow regime identification and characterization. Decline Curve Analysis. Selection of representative wells for detailed analysis.

Rate Transient Analysis (RTA) - Topaze NL

Use of surface rate and pressure data, correction to datum, handling both casing and tubing flow. Specific loglog analysis tools. Matching data using analytical (with pseudo-functions) and numerical models. Production forecasting and EUR calculation. Use of occasional shut-in data in when available.

Basic models - Topaze NL

Analytical and numerical models with simple geometries and diffusion effects, compatible with the ‘SRV flow assumption’.

Advanced models - KURC

  • Analytical and numerical models with complex geometries but compliant with the ‘SRV flow assumption’
  • Analytical and numerical models challenging SRV flow: Conjugate fractures and Discrete Fractures Network (DFN)
  • Complex diffusion issues: water flow back, confined PVT
  • Assessing single well uncertainties

A recommended workflow based on current (2014)

An insight into possible developments and workflow improvements


All courses are conducted in English unless otherwise notified.
Date Location Instructor Cost
To be announced

To be announced
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