Unconventional Resources Analysis and Processing
A course to develop user knowledge and capability in the handling and analysis of multi-well UR resources.
Strong emphasis on rigorous physics in modeling methodology
A course to stress the limitations of methods used, industry knowledge and the risks inherent in the analysis assumptions.
No pre-requisite software knowledge is required however, knowledge and experience in transient and/or rate transient analysis would be an advantage.
At KAPPA we freely admit that we, and the industry as a whole, are on a learning curve with Unconventional Resources.
Conventional methods, it is now acknowledged, are a dramatic over simplification of the physical reality and may lead
to erroneous results. With much content derived from the 28-member KAPPA Unconventional Resources Consortium, this course
delivers technical knowledge as it is available today. But we should offer a health warning; it is dynamic. As we develop
experience, knowledge and new tools, so the content of this course will evolve. What we teach here might be outdated within months.
In the noise of prejudice, convention and difficult physics we state and teach clearly what we believe to be technically correct.
Much of the course is therefore about stating the confidence, counter-arguments and limits in assumptions as the technology evolves.
Some issues are related to the physics in these formations and the sheer complexity of the problem: the extremely low permeability
of these plays lead to very long transient behaviors, a lack of long-term empirical knowledge of how these plays will evolve, and
extreme pressure gradients inducing nonlinearity of even the simplest behaviors. We may need exotic diffusion equations at different
scales, confined PVT due to the small pore space, potentially complex and unknown or assumed combinations of hydraulic and natural
To these challenging unknowns we need to add the practical issues related to the way we operate these plays: insufficient human
resource to handle thousands of wells, a temptation to process and not understand, very poor data quality and little industry
awareness of how wrong we could be.
Pre-requisites to attend the course
Prior knowledge of the software is not required but if you have never used it before we would be happy to give you a full working
demo version with examples and workflow videos prior to attending.
Introduction and Definitions
Specifics of shale plays
The impact of ultra-low permeability, transient behavior, and the lack of empirical knowledge and modeling issues. Multiple scales
of diffusion: desorption, micropore (Fick’s law), fracture (Darcy and Forscheimer). Fracture density and effectiveness, PVT issues
and typical well life.
UR data sources
Decline Curve Analysis (DCA) - Citrine, Topaze NL
Conventional techniques and their limitations; Arps, Fetkovitch, flowing material balance and others. Flow regime analysis techniques:
linear flow, SRV and transition. Techniques adapted to unconventionals; stretched exponential, Duong, etc.
Load, QAQC and Diagnostics - Citrine
Multi-well data load from various standard sources. QA/QC and wells pre-selection, grouping and normalization. Flow regime identification
and characterization. Decline Curve Analysis. Selection of representative wells for detailed analysis.
Rate Transient Analysis (RTA) - Topaze NL
Use of surface rate and pressure data, correction to datum, handling both casing and tubing flow. Specific loglog analysis tools.
Matching data using analytical (with pseudo-functions) and numerical models. Production forecasting and EUR calculation.
Use of occasional shut-in data in when available.
Basic models - Topaze NL
Analytical and numerical models with simple geometries and diffusion effects, compatible with the ‘SRV flow assumption’.
Advanced models - KURC
- Analytical and numerical models with complex geometries but compliant with the ‘SRV flow assumption’
- Analytical and numerical models challenging SRV flow: Conjugate fractures and Discrete Fractures Network (DFN)
- Complex diffusion issues: water flow back, confined PVT
- Assessing single well uncertainties
A recommended workflow based on current (2014)
An insight into possible developments and workflow improvements
No public course planned
All courses are conducted in English unless otherwise notified.
To be announced
To be announced