Optimizing recovery from unconventional reservoirs requires rigorous, real physics analysis of flow data at different scales. It is vital to understand storage, heterogeneity and transport mechanisms not observed in conventional reservoirs from the single fracture, through multi-fractured wells and thence to the reservoir level.

The KAPPA diagnosis and modeling of dynamic data workflow integrates Topaze (Rate Transient Analysis), Saphir (Pressure Transient Analysis), Rubis (Reservoir Simulation) and Citrine (Field Performance Analysis) modules to provide confidence in EUR estimates and rate forecasts. It covers a wide range of model concepts: from a simple symmetrical multi-fractured well in a homogeneous reservoir to complex well geometries with non-uniform fractures and multiple levels of reservoir heterogeneity and modeling multi-well scenarios.

Unconventional Workflow

  • Topaze\nLate Time RTA
  • Saphir\nEarly Time PTA
  • Rubis\nNumerical\nSector Modeling
  • Citrine\nGrouped\nMultiple Wells

Topaze - Late Time RTA

Topaze provides well and reservoir flow parameters used in modeling reservoir/well performance accounting for matrix heterogeneity. Analytical and numerical proxy models can quickly run multiple scenarios to assess uncertainty in the input parameters and then forecast results. The numerical models utilize real fluid PVT across the range of pressures encountered in the reservoir and can simulate multi-well development set-ups.

Saphir - Early Time PTA

Saphir is used to interpret drawdown, buildup, injection and falloff, interference, and Minifrac/DFIT tests. Saphir is also used to estimate wellbore and reservoir properties and assess matrix and fissure heterogeneity. A Chow Pressure Group derivative compliments the standard loglog plot to improve flow regime identification. Results obtained from analyses are used to fine-tune RTA modeling and field simulation.

Rubis - Numerical Sector Modeling

Rubis incorporates reservoir heterogeneity of the ultra-low permeability environment, complex reservoir structure and geological features into reservoir models. Results from Saphir and Topaze can be imported into Rubis to simulate a more extensive sector to determine well spacing and DFN characteristics. Numerical models can include advanced geometries and non-linear effects in PVT or pressure-dependent properties to match the problem complexity and provide a rigorous solution.

Citrine - Grouped Multiple Wells

Given the high well density seen in unconventional resource development, it is rarely practical to perform PTA/RTA analysis on each well. Citrine offers fast data rendering and visualizations that support flexible multi-well analysis and provides a way to divide a large dataset into groups based on location, completion, or production behavior. It enables selection and modeling of a type-well for a group, either based on DCA or RTA techniques and replicating the type-well behavior in other wells through a transformation that preserves each well’s uniqueness. Citrine can also consolidate the forecasts for the field EUR estimate.


KAPPA DDA Book - Unconventional resources chapter 15 Feb 2021 8.7 MB Download