Carbone is an interactive fluid modelling package designed to build and tune EoS or Black Oil fluid models and perform different operations on them. Whilst the most common use case is to build a PVT model to be utilized in the KAPPA workstation or any other Black oil or compositional modeling platform, Carbone can also be used for in-depth fluid studies, including multi-sample EoS model building, wax and asphaltene studies.

With speed and ease of use at its core, processes such as phase envelope generation, flash results and model comparison are automatically performed for any fluid and synchronized with fluid editing.

Carbone is powered by the technical kernel from IFPEN as part of our ongoing technical partnership.

Built as part of KAPPA Generation 6, Carbone has a web UI and separate back end, allowing various deployment configurations, namely stand-alone, client-server, or through the KAPPA-Automate platform as a microservice.

Carbone offers a multilingual UI, currently supporting English, French, Russian, Chinese and Spanish.



Fluid Definition

Built-in ‘standard’ (up to C20) and ‘extended’ (up to C40) lists are available for component selection but the user can create and save any custom scenario.

Whilst the properties of pure components are fixed, pseudo component properties (Molar Weight, Specific Gravity, and Boiling Temperature) can be overridden at load time and all other properties are recomputed automatically.

Twu/Edmister, Lee-Kesler Extended, Riazi/Edmister and Pedersen correlations are available to compute pseudo component properties.

In addition to selecting components and defining the composition and properties of a fluid in Carbone, fluids may also be initialized by importing files in Eclipse™ compositional format.

EoS models

Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong models are available.

An option for volume correction is also available for density correction.

Internal coherence of Acentric factor (to component boiling point) and Volume Shifts (to component surface density) maybe be forced in the model.

Users can choose to conserve mass or moles when a fluid is modified e.g. in a Regression or Characterization etc...

Viscosity model

Lohrenz-Bray-Clark (LBC) and LBC Heavy Oil models are available for viscosity computation.

Internal coherence of Critical volumes (to Orrick & Erbar viscosity correlation) may be forced in the model.

EoS Consistency

To check the consistency of an EoS fluid resulting from Characterization and/or regression, multiple plots are offered:

1. Component properties (Tc, Pc, ω, Viscosity, Tb, Vc, Specific Gravity and Parachor) vs. Molecular weight

2. Ki vs. Pressure

3. Ki vs Tbi

Phase Envelope & Flash Results

A PT phase envelope is simulated on the fly for any fluid. Multiple phase envelopes can be compared.

Flash results, including mixture properties, oil and gas phase composition, thermodynamic, transport and thermal properties are automatically computed and output at reservoir and standard conditions. Users can also specify additional pressures and temperatures at which to compute flash results.

Characterization

A detailed, multi-sample, field-wide characterization can be carried out in Carbone. The process steps include:

1. Molar Distribution Models: Choose between Exponential or Gamma distribution models and tune model parameters to match a single or multiple samples

2. Characterization Factors: Correlate molecular weight and specific gravity of one or multiple samples from a field using Watson, Jacoby or Søreide Characterization Factors.

3. Boiling Point Estimation: Correlate pseudo-component molecular weight and boiling points using Twu or Søreide correlation.

The tuned characterization can help QC any bad quality GC data and systematically replace bad quality GC data with reliable estimates from the model. In the absence of extended GC data, the plus fraction can also be split into heavier fractions from the characterization.

Once a characterzation is created, it can be applied to any compatible fluid, allowing users to develop field-wide EOS models.

Split

The split process is used when the initial compositional analysis of the fluid is not sufficient to correctly simulate the laboratory experiments.The end goal is to split the plus fraction into a certain number of pseudo-components.

Carbone offers three different Split procedures:

1. Standard oil characterization to C80

2. Heavy oil characterization to C200

3. 'Automatic Wax': This is an automatic split scheme, used to produce a Wax fluid. All fractions with carbon number greater than N (where 6 ≤ N ≤ 16) are split into Paraffin (P), Naphthene (N) and Aromatic (A) families. Users can specify which of the three families will form part of the solid (wax) phase.

Constrained split allows the characterization of two fluids to the same pseudo-component fractions.

Lumping

Lumping is used to reduce the number of components of a given fluid. The following lumping methods are available:

1. User defined: groups of components are created by the user. Carbone computes the equivalent properties of these components and assigns them to the groups.

2. Montel Gouel: a target number of components is specified by the user. Carbone automatically groups and computes the components using the method proposed by Montel and Gouel (1984).

3. SARA: This is an automatic lumping scheme, used to produce an Asphaltene fluid using SARA information, from the original fluid composition.

Fluid Definition

Carbone provides an automatic PNA split scheme. Each fraction with Carbon number greater than N (where 6 ≤ N ≤ 16) is split in to the three P, N and A families. Users can specify which of the three component families will be part of the solid phase. The output of this split is a 'Wax' fluid.

Alternatively, if a fluid is already characterized into solid and non-solid forming components, the component precipitation type can be set when loading this definition.

Precipitation model

The wax model in Carbone is derived from the one proposed by Pedersen (1995) and is based on the thermodynamic equilibrium between the liquid and solid (wax) phases. The solid phase is assumed to behave ideally. All constituents of a pseudo-component do not necessarily enter into the wax phase. The solid-liquid equilibrium ratio, KiSL, is zero for the non-wax-forming parts of all pseudo-components.

WAT and Wax Precipitation curves are automatically generated for any ‘Wax’ fluid.

Model Tuning

A dedicated ‘Wax’ regression is available for ‘Wax’ fluids, allowing users to regress on Melting Point and Enthalpy of Fusion of the Wax forming components to match WAT and/or Wax precipitation data.

Note: other regression types can also be used for a Wax fluid.

Wax Viscosity

Carbone allows input of apparent liquid viscosity (ηapparent) vs. shear rate or fraction of crystallized wax (ɸwax) vs. shear rate data and computes the other using the formulation presented by Pedersen and Rønningsen (2000). Plots of both ηapparent and ɸwax are displayed vs. shear rate.

Fluid Definition

Carbone provides an automatic lumping process, which lumps any fluid into a 10-component ‘Asphaltene’ fluid, based on SARA input. The method is derived from Scewczyk et al. (1999).

Following an internal study at IFPEN, the model was further tuned to speed up the Asphaltene calculation process.

Alternatively, if a fluid is already characterized into Asphaltene and non-Asphaltene fractions, component precipitation type can be set when loading this definition.

Risk Assessment

Two methods are available in Carbone:

1. De Boer's method (De Boer et al., 1995)

2. Colloidal Instability Index (CII) method (Yen et al., 2001)

Precipitation Model

The Asphaltene model in Carbone treats Asphaltene as a solubility class and models asphaltene precipitation as Liquid-Liquid demixing. All the constituents are assumed present in all phases and flocculation is considered as the appearance of a second liquid phase.

Abdoul et al. (1991) equation of state is used to analyze the various phases. The entire asphaltene phase envelope for the complete PT spectrum is automatically generated.The solubility curve is also automatically generated for any ‘Asphaltene’ fluid.

Model Tuning

A dedicated ‘Asphaltene’ regression is available for ‘Aphaltene’ fluids, allowing users to regress on Tc and Mw of the Asphaltene components to match the asphaltene onset pressure and/or precipitation data.

Note: other regression types can also be used for an Asphaltene fluid.

Conventional Experiments

The following experiments can be loaded and simulated:

1. Constant Composition Expansion (CCE)

2. Constant Volume Depletion (CVD)

3. Saturation Pressure

4. Saturation Temperature

5. Differential Liberation

6. Classical Separator

Data can be easily pasted from clipboard.

In addition to fluid properties, Carbone also allows users to enter oil and/or gas compositions at each pressure step in the experiment.

These compositions may then be included in the objective function to use in regression.

Precipitation Experiments

The following experiments related to solid precipitation can be loaded and simulated:

1. Asphaltene Onset Pressure (AOP)

2. Asphaltene Precipitation

3. Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT)

4. Wax Precipitation

5. Wax Viscosity

Data can be easily pasted from clipboard.

Sample/Lab Data QC

The following QC methods are available for the different lab experiments:

1. Oil density mass balance

2. Composition forward material balance / Bashbush plot

3. Composition backward material balance

4. Z-Factor comparison with Standing & Katz chart

5. Hoffman plot

Regression Types & Solvers

Six kind of regression types are available.

1. Classical pseudo regresses on pseudo component properties,

2. EoS parameters on Ωa and Ωb parameters,

3. Viscosity Model on Critical Volumes and Modified LBC parameters,

4. Automatic Heavy, on the boiling point of the heaviest fraction to match on the liquid density at standard conditions,

5. Mw+, on molecular weight of the plus fraction to match saturation pressure,

6. Asphaltene, on Tc and Molecular weight of Asphlatene fractions,

7. Wax, on Melting Point and Enthalpy of Fusion of Wax fractions.

Two solvers are available for regression: KAPPA and Hubopt.

Controlling Regression Variables

Regression variables may be independently varied or constrained using a constant or ramped multiplier.

Multi-Fluid Regression

Multi-fluid regression is offered, where a given regression can use data from multiple lab reports and compositions from multiple fluids to arrive at a common EoS model.

Regression on Composition from Lab Experiments

If fluid compositions have been loaded for different pressure steps in lab experiments, they can be included in the objective function for regression

Fluid Definition

Fluids properties can be defined using a broad range of Black Oil correlations (see Technical References). These correlations can also be tuned to user data.

Alternatively, properties may be defined from user tables.

A Black Oil fluid may also be initialized from either KAPPA or Eclipse™ BO files.

Fluid Types

The following Black Oil fluid types can be created:

1. Dry Gas (Hydrocarbon, Pure N2 or Pure CO2)

2. Wet Gas

3. Condensate

4. Dead Oil

5. Saturated Oil

6. Volatile Oil

Water can be included with any of the fluid type.

Flash Results

Flash results, including mixture properties, oil and gas phase thermodynamic and transport properties are automatically computed and output at reservoir conditions. Users can also specify additional pressures and temperatures at which to compute flash results.

A P-x phase envelope is simulated on the fly for Modified Black Oil formulation (Condensate and Volatile Oil Fluid Types).

Multiple phase envelopes can be compared.

Export Compositional Fluid

Carbone offers the following compositional formats to export fluid PVT:

1. Eclipse™ compositional

2. PROSPER™ compositional

3. CMG compositional (GEM™)

Generate Black Oil Tables

Black oil tables can be generated for a compositional fluid and exported in one of the following formats:

1. KAPPA BO

2. Eclipse™ BO

3. CMG BO (IMEX™)

Reservoir depletion processes can be modeled using CCE, CVD or DLE. Surface separator train can be defined for the export.

Black Oil Fluid

Properties for black oil fluids may be exported in tabular format.

Additionally, an XML output of the black oil fluid setup can be created for easy transfer to other KAPPA modules.

Separation

A separation process is a PT flash at a given pressure and temperature. The inputs to this flash are the feed composition, pressure and temperature.

The output of a separation process is two fluids: separation gas and separation oil. Multiple separators can be connected to either stream to design a separator train.

Mixer

The mixer option allows the user to mix two different fluids.

The second fluid may be one of the existing fluids in the document or a single fluid component.

There are different mixing criteria available: ‘Target GOR’, ‘Molar fraction of the secondary fluid’ and ‘Miscibility pressure’.

Compositional Gradient

The compositional gradient process calculates the variations in composition and properties of a reservoir fluid as a function of reservoir depth.

For any depth, compositions can be output as a new ‘Fluid’ on which any process may be applied.