Carbone is a highly interactive, Fluid Modeling package, designed to build fluid models that match experimental data on which various scenarios can then be run. While the most common use case is to build a PVT model to be utilized in the KAPPA DDA platform (or any other Black oil or compositional modeling platform), Carbone can also run experiments and predictions of fluid behaviors.

Carbone is powered by the technical kernel from IFPEN as part of our ongoing technical partnership.

Built as part of KAPPA Generation 6, Carbone has a web UI and separate back end, allowing various deployment configurations, namely stand-alone, client-server, or through the KAPPA-Automate platform as a microservice. Carbone v6.0 is available as a standalone version only.

Carbone offers a multilingual UI, currently supporting English, French, Russian, Chinese and Spanish.



Carbone Workflow

  • Model Choice
  • Fluid\nCharacterization
    • Lab Data Input\n& QC
    • Regression
  • Additional Processes
  • Fluid Export

Equilibrium and Density

Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong models are available.

An option for volume correction is also available for density correction.

Internal coherence of Acentric factor (to component boiling point) and Volume Shifts (to component surface density) maybe be forced in the model.

Pseudo-component correlations

The following correlations are available to compute pseudo component properties:

1. Twu/Edmister

2. Lee-Kesler Extended

3. Riazi/Edmister

Viscosity

Lohrenz-Bray-Clark (LBC) and LBC Heavy Oil models are available for viscosity computation.

Internal coherence of Critical volumes (to Orrick & Erbar viscosity correlation) may be forced in the model.

Define Composition

Built-in ‘standard’ (up to C20) and ‘extended’ (up to C40) lists are available for component selection but the user can create and save any custom scenario.

Whilst the properties of pure components are fixed, pseudo component properties (Molar Weight, Specific Gravity, and Boiling Temperature) can be overridden at load time and all other properties are recomputed automatically.

Import Fluid Definition

In addition to selecting components and defining the composition and properties of a fluid in Carbone, fluids may also be initialized by importing files in Eclipse™ compositional format.

Phase Envelope

A PT phase envelope is simulated on the fly for any fluid. Multiple phase envelopes can be compared.

Split/Plus Characterization

The split process is used when the initial compositional analysis of the fluid is not sufficient to correctly simulate the laboratory experiments.The end goal is to split the plus fraction into a certain number of pseudo-components.

Carbone offers two different characterization procedures:

1. Standard oil characterization to C80

2. Heavy oil characterization to C200.

Constrained split allows the characterization of two fluids to the same pseudo-component fractions.

Lumping

Lumping is used to reduce the number of components of a given fluid. The following lumping methods are available:

1. User defined: groups of components are created by the user. Carbone computes the equivalent properties of these components and assigns them to the groups.

2. Montel Gouel: a target number of components is specified by the user. Carbone automatically groups and computes the components using the Montel Gouel method.

Constrained lumping lumps two fluids to the same pseudo component fractions.

EOS Model Consistency

The following plots are offered to check the consistency of the EoS Model:

1. Tc vs Molar Weight

2. Pc vs Molar Weight

3. ω vs Molar Weight

4. Viscosity vs Molar Weight

5. Ki vs Pressure

6. Ki vs Boiling Point

Lab Data/Experiments

The following experiments can be loaded and simulated:

1. Constant Composition Expansion (CCE)

2. Constant Volume Depletion (CVD)

3. Saturation Pressure

4. Saturation Temperature

5. Differential Liberation

6. Classical Separator

Data can be easily pasted from clipboard.

In addition to fluid properties, Carbone also allows users to enter oil and/or gas compositions at each pressure step in the experiment.

These compositions may then be included in the objective function to use in regression.

Sample/Lab Data QC

The following QC methods are available for the different lab experiments:

1. Hoffman plot for Separator data

2. Bashbush plot for CVD data

3. Mass balance for DL data

Regression Types & Solvers

Four kind of regression types are available.

1. ‘Classical pseudo’ regresses on pseudo component properties,

2. ‘EOS parameters’ on Ωa and Ωb parameters,

3. ‘Viscosity Model’ on Critical Volumes and Modified LBC parameters,

4. ‘Automatic Heavy’, on the boiling point of the heaviest fraction to match on the liquid density at standard conditions.

Two solvers are available for regression: KAPPA and Hubopt.

Controlling Regression Variables

Regression variables may be independently varied or constrained using a constant or ramped multiplier.

Multi-Fluid Regression

Multi-fluid regression is offered, where a given regression can use data from multiple lab reports and compositions from multiple fluids to arrive at a common EOS model.

Regression on Composition from Lab Experiments

If fluid compositions have been loaded for different pressure steps in lab experiments, they can be included in the objective function for regression

Separation

A separation process is a PT flash at a given pressure and temperature. The inputs to this flash are the feed composition, pressure and temperature.

The output of a separation process is two fluids: separation gas and separation oil. Multiple separators can be connected to either stream to design a separator train.

Mixer

The mixer option allows the user to mix two different fluids.

The second fluid may be one of the existing fluids in the document or a single fluid component.

There are different mixing criteria available: ‘Target GOR’, ‘Molar fraction of the secondary fluid’ and ‘Miscibility pressure’.

Compositional Gradient

The compositional gradient process calculates the variations in composition and properties of a reservoir fluid as a function of reservoir depth.

For any depth, compositions can be output as a new ‘Fluid’ on which any process may be applied.

Compositional Export

Carbone offers the following compositional formats to export fluid PVT:

1. Eclipse™ compositional

2. PROSPER™ compositional and BO

Black Oil Export

Carbone offers the following Black Oil formats to export fluid PVT:

1. KAPPA BO

2. Eclipse™ BO

3. PROSPER™ BO